A six-month performance in which I offered my "housework" in exchange for a printed copy of someone else's fetal scan. Here, you can read the performance which has been documented as an online digital diary.

19.03.2015 I place my ad: "I will work for your scan. Pregnant? I want you!"

My ad (in German) is hanging on the bulletin board at University Hospital Cologne on Kempener Strasse 62 in Köln-Lindenthal.

 

28.03.2015 The phone rings. A man named Michael says he has no scan but plans to get one. He wants me to meet his girlfriend Minney.

 

04.04.2015 I receive 3 emails with smileys from 19-weeker Alice, 14-weeker Simone, and 10-weeker Tina. They want to give me their scans but then I never hear from them again.

 

Numerous feminist scholars have argued that scanning transforms the way women experience pregnancy, that women are set in opposition and in competition to scans, and that feminism has struggled to produce equally powerful images for women's rights to abortion.

 

06.04.2015 I meet Michael and Minney at University Hospital Cologne. We're not pregnant, they say, but we have been planning for pregnancy since a long time. Have you tried a doctor? I ask. Yes, they say, but no success, but maca, they ask, do you have maca?

 

Minney and Michael want me to find an aphrodisiac called maca.

 

07.04.2015 My work is now to find maca for Minney and Michael. They come from Kenya but from two separate tribes: Michael is from the north, Minney from east. I speak German with Michael and English with Minney. 

 

MINNEY We also hope your Peruvian friend will get back to you on a positive note so we can try out the maca powder.

 

09.04.2015 I call a friend of a friend, a medical student named Amanda. She transported kilos of maca from the jungle in Peru to a laboratory in Cologne to study its erectile effects. But few months after her arrival she found out that the German professor only wanted to meet her at night.

 

MINNEY We are very happy to hear from you and we expect to have you as our guests on Thursday 16.

13.04.2015 A woman named Helene calls and invites me to speak to a group of African migrant women at the Department of Public Health in Köln-Innenstadt. One member makes a joke about me doing theoretical voodoo with scans. Africans, says Helene, cannot speak about pregnancy. It's a real problem, she says, it's taboo.

 

Witch-hunts continue to take place in Africa. In Ghana there are "witch camps" for women accused of inducing sexual and economic sterility. For an analysis on witch-hunting as a global phenomenon and as part of capitalist expansionism, see: Silvia Federici, 2008, 'Witch-Hunting, Globalization, and Feminist Solidarity in Africa Today', New York: The Commoner.

 

An artist is better than a doctor, says Michael.

 

16.04.2015 Today I catch the train with Amanda from Peru to meet Minney and Michael in Köln-Höhenhaus. It takes us 60 minutes plus a 30 minute walk before we reach a small house close to a forest. Germany is the most powerful country in the world, says Michael. They found the secret to success, he says. Michael works as a cleaner at the hospital where I placed my ad. The hospital, he says, is a labyrinth but I know every room. Michael buys 100 grams of maca for 15 Euros. Amanda makes a small profit but I still have no scan. 

MINNEY Thank you so much for the help you gave us with Amanda, am happy to tell you we are trying it this evening, hopefully by around two weeks or so we expect to see changes as I have read from the internet. And we will buy some more from her by month end. Otherwise I hope you are doing fine? I hope to keep in touch as time goes by. Thanks again for the picture it's actually the first picture of Michael and I together.

 

HELENE Rita (pregnant with scan) is interested... please call.

 

19.04.2015 Today I visit Rita and her husband. At the moment they live in a hotel room with their daughter at Hotel König in Köln-Kalk. The hotel has an internet cafe in the reception and the sleeping rooms are upstairs. Rita and her husband come from Nigeria but their daughter was born in Spain. They just arrived in Germany and Rita is expecting to deliver next month. Rita shows me the scan I could possibly get and her registration papers. I translate a letter but later her husband says no.

 

20.04.2015 I meet Abbie, a member of the African migrant group. She is 37 weeks and 6 days pregnant according to her smartphone pregnancy app. Abbie has been tracking her pregnancy day by day. She's been sleeping since several months on the couch in a small apartment with eight people and wants to move out before she gives birth to her son.

 

Abbie wants to exchange her scan for a new apartment.

 

21.04.2015 My work is to find in two-weeks a two-room for Abbie and her not-yet-born child. I start making phone calls, search the internet for rentals, write emails to landlords, set-up as many viewings as possible.

 

In the 1970s Marxist feminists began to demand wages for housework in Italy, Britain, and the US. In their manifestos they describe the household as 'a workplace' and the family as 'the social factory'. See: Mariarosa Dalla Costa and Selma James, The Power of Women and the Subversion of the Community, Bristol, Falling Wall Press, 3rd edition, 1975.

 

ABBIE Will meet you ,because I like it ,,but am hoping they give to me ,because the jobcenter is paying for me ,,because some landlords Dnt give their aparments out if the jobcenter is paying !!!

 

ME I told the landlord you get social welfare and you are pregnant and that is okay but you need to show him a WB-Licence for public housing. Do you have this certificate?

 

23.04.2015 Abbie walks fast to our first viewing at 14:30 on Berliner Strasse 878 in Köln-Dünnwald. Her belly, rather than weigh her down, speeds her up. Abbie is a EU citizen (like me) but comes from Ghana. I meet her boyfriend Joseph who is temporarily stationed in Dortmund, a town 95 km from Cologne. Germany has the highest rate of people seeking asylum than any other EU country. Joseph was teaching psychology and counselling students with HIV/AIDS before he fled Ghana last year. Abbie and Joseph neither speak nor write German.

 

Abbie walks in and out, back and forth, room to room.

 

Tell him I want him to give it to me now, she says, but the housing agent gives me a form. I translate. Abbie tells me later she wants to have 6 children: 4 boys and 2 girls. In Ghana the population doubled in the last 25 years. Germany has the lowest birth rate worldwide and immigration is delaying the shrinking process for now. Abbie has no siblings. I don't want to be the last, she says.

24.04.2015 I draw a figure with the head of a woman and the tail of a fetus and then a series of pregnant bellies with kicking fetus. I print a SCHUFA form for Abbie to prove she is debt-free.

 

Here you got to do-it-yourself, says Abbie.

 

25.04.2015 I meet Abbie and Joseph at 12:00 on Von-Sparr-Strasse 12 in Köln-Mülheim. The monthly rent is 590 Euro and Abbie's limit is 600. The landlord is German and he wants us to fill out a special 8-page document. He has a metric ruler in his pocket and stands very straight. Abbie jumps up and down. Tell him I want it now, she says. Abbie is 21 years old and I am 35. I live in a two-room and want a three-room. 

 

In The Problem With Work, Kathi Weeks concludes that the wages for housework movement is also 'a refusal of work's domination over the times and spaces of life and of its moralizations, a resistance to the elevation of work as necessary duty and supreme calling'. See: Kathi Weeks, 2011, The Problem With Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries, Durham and London: Duke University Press, p. 135.

 

26.04.2015 The next day we find ourselves lost in the maze of Köln-Chorweiler, a suburban area with high cement blocks but also many playgrounds. The sky is grey but the rain has stopped. Abbie rings the doorbell and a Russian woman opens the door. She is busy packing her furniture and asks us to return tomorrow at 09:15.

 

ABBIE The job center will pay everything ,,if only I get an apartment.

 

27.04.2015 I meet Abbie, Joseph, and the Russian woman in the early morning in front of the Aachener Wohnungsgesellschaft which is the housing agency in charge of local rentals. This apartment is reserved, says the realtor, to a woman who is just like Abbie, he says. We were first, I tell him. Nobody has seen the apartment except for us, I say. Well, he says, the other woman came to my office to see me every two weeks for the past six months and that's how we do it around here, you just got to keep coming till something pops out. We leave and then the Russian woman says I should go home, eat, and return to meet her at 14:15 in front of her mother's apartment which is also soon available for rent and located around the corner. So I go home and eat but when I return the Russian woman tells me to suddenly hide. She pushes me out the door. Then, 25 minutes later, she opens the door and says the word LEG. What? I ask. LEG, she says, go to LEG.

 

I feel nonpregnant, says Abbie.

 

28.04.2015 We meet the LEG realtor at 9:00 in Köln-Altstadt. Come back at 11:00, he says. We return and then he tells Abbie she needs more documents but could take the apartment of the mother of the Russian woman. We take the LEG documents to a civil servant named Frau Echt at the Job Center on Luxemburger Strasse 12 in Köln-Mitte. She says she'll call me tomorrow at 08:45.

 

29.04.2015 I wait for Frau Echt to call but she doesn't call so I call Abbie. We decide not to wait but go directly again to the Job Center and pick up the rental guarantee ourselves. I write a living necessities list for Abbie. The Job Center will transfer extra money next month so she can furnish her new apartment and buy baby clothes.

 

30.04.2015 We meet at 8:30 in front of Amt für Wohnungswesen in Ottmar-Pohl-Platz 1 in Köln-Kalk. The town agrees to cover Abbie's security deposit of 900 Euros. We photocopy all her papers.

 

ABBIE Goodmorning,how are you ,Hope u had a wonderful weekend.39weeks 5days and still no contraction am soo worried about it ,cuz am expecting to see my son tommorrow but still no contraction.

 

Some sort of superstition is attached to the scan.

 

04.05.2015 I speak again to the African migrant group. One woman wants me to get her twins. I want twins, she says, what do I have to do to have twins, she asks, put up a leg or what? A woman named Alicia is 7-months pregnant with twins but the twins are too heavy. She wants me to work for her and shows me her scan but her husband then says no. In Ghana, says Abbie, a pregnant woman cannot eat bread on the street. Pregnant women stay indoors hidden from view.

 

During the 18th century, the theory of maternal impressions in Europe was the belief that the imagination of a pregnant woman could harm her foetus. Today, in Germany and in France, scanning technology is increasingly practiced with psychoanalysis to study the behaviour of fetuses in the uterus and fetal psychology has established itself as medical discipline. See: Ludwig Janus, 2001, The Enduring Effects of Prenatal Experience: Echoes from the Womb. Translated by Terence Dowling. Heidelberg: Mattes Verlag.

 

07.05.2015 We meet the LEG man at 09:00. He was on a short holiday so the rental contract is not yet ready. Abbie is overdue. He already forgot me, says Abbie.

08.05.2015 First we had a baby and no apartment, says Joseph, now we will have an apartment and no baby. I translate 3 of 20 pages of the LEG contract for Abbie. She signs and we deliver a copy to Frau Echt. The Job Center agrees to transfer the 560 Euro monthly rent for her 65 qm apartment. Abbie is 3 days overdue and really worried but only 5% of pregnant women deliver on their so-called due date, says Joseph.

 

The work is endless, I think.

 

Abbie has a new apartment and says it must be the work of God. I had estimated 20 hours per scan but to obtain a scan is much more work than expected. Doctors say first-borns usually come late but I worked over 40 hours for Abbie and I still have no scan. She wants to give me her scan after the birth. 

 

ABBIE "Hmm still not feeling pains ,and will be at the hospital tommorrow am hoping to see my son this week."

 

09.05.2015 A German woman calls me. Her name is Judy and she is 24-weeks pregnant. It's her third pregnancy and she wants me to work for her. I have plenty of scans in 2D and 3D, she says.

 

ABBIE "How are u doing this morning ,u can visit me today if u want ok . Am at the hospital,now and have been given the juice , am still drinking hoping to feel some pains after drinking."

13.05.2015 I visit Abbie at the hospital at 15:30 on Jakobstrasse 27-31 in Köln-Südstadt. She says, I'm praying for the pains to come, then I'm free. Abbie trusted her smartphone pregnancy app and now thinks she missed some sort of appointment. Today she induces. Later on I time her contractions and stop counting the hours I work for her. Pregnancy is not easy, she says. I work overtime for Abbie.

 

14.05.2015 Abbie gives birth at 07:42. Desmond is 51 cm and 3800 grams. The first thing Abbie does is count his fingers because some people are born with six fingers. Joseph cooks a Ghanaian dish for postpartum women called Fufu.

 

15.05.2015 We register Desmond at the hospital. The birth certificate costs 10 Euros. A Turkish nurse then shows Abbie how to breastfeed and I translate for her how to use milk as lotion for the baby's dry skin.

 

18.05.2015 I spend the morning trying to contact the Hausmeister who controls the keys to Abbie's apartment but he doesn't pick up the office phone. The LEG call center gives me his mobile number and I speak on his voicemail. He calls back 2 hours later and we meet at 16:00.

 

ABBIE Hi Goodmorning,pls do u have screw driving ,,I need it because I have broken  some part of the baby stroller,,

 

19.05.2015 I pick-up Abbie at the hospital but the doctor first has to examine the baby. I am not a family member so I have to wait outside the doctor's room for 40 minutes. Don't cry baby, says Abbie, I beg you baby. If I hear him crying, she says, the milk comes plenty, but he only wants milk, this boy! Abbie takes a shower and we leave the hospital.

20.05.2015 I ring the bell and Abbie opens the door of her new apartment. My work for her, I think, is now over, so I ask her to just give me a scan. Abbie shows me her four scans and says, you choose. I really want a panorama so I select the first scan the sonographer took before zooming-in. I put her scan in my wallet. Abbie then smiles and says, his mind is different. I'm happy I gave birth in Europe. He has a European mind, she says. She says, I didn't want the birth to be in Ghana because the health services are poor and only the rich can afford a good hospital but in Germany the health system takes care of you. It's my right, she says, they have to take care of me and my baby. Abbie planned her pregnancy using a smartphone ovulation calculator.

 

'Magic kills industry,' said Francis Bacon in 1870, quoted by Silvia Federici in chapter three, The Great Caliban: The Struggle Against the Rebel Body, in which she states: 'Eradicating these [magical] practices was a necessary condition for the capitalist rationalization of work, since magic appeared as an illicit form of power and an instrument to obtain what one wanted without work, that is, a refusal of work in action'. See: Silvia Federici, 2004, Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation, Brooklyn: Autonomedia, p. 142.

 

Later on at home I count email correspondences between me and Abbie. We wrote a total of 124 emails and today is our 1 month anniversary. I wanted a scan and got a story. It's a scan with a history.

 

23.05.2015 I meet Judy at her shop which is located in Köln-Belgisches Viertel, the most fashionable area in town. I have something for you, she says. Judy has twelve scans for me and I am curious to know how I will work for her. Will my baby be a pop star? she asks and laughs.

Judy is thirty-seven years old and comes from Bavaria, the southern region of Germany. In her early twenties she worked as a nurse in Ghana. She bought a camera shortly before the trip and once overseas she began to photograph the operating theatre. She now professionally combines her photographic knowledge and medical expertise to stage hospital scenes for the film and television industry.

 

In India the usage of scanning technology has risen sex-selective abortions and illegally sold scanners. A US research team is currently developing a scanner that automatically blocks the visibility of the sex of the fetus and this model is to be sold in India and China.

 

The sonographer just printed so many, Judy says, I don't know what to do with so many scans. The scans are too much information, she says. Judy will let me borrow all her scans. She says, I told the sonographer not to tell me the baby's sex because I want it to be a surprise but now after looking at the scans my husband thinks we are going to have a boy. Why does he think this? I ask her. In the 3D scans the jaw looks so wide, she answers. I don't want to think about the baby's sex because I want to be open to the soul that is coming, she says.

 

'The opposite of what is playful is not what is serious, but what is real' said Freud, quoted by Susan Rubin Suleiman in reference to her essay, 'The Laugh of the Mother', in which she expresses the importance of seeing a mother at play. The 'I' is most free and autonomous in the activity of play and to recognize a mother as a subject, laughing while playing, 'brings a touch of lightness to what otherwise could appear as too solemn a dream'. See: Susan Rubin Suleiman, 1990, Subversive Intent: Gender, Politics, and the Avant-Garde, Cambrige: Harvard University Press, pp. 179-180.

 

29.05.2015 Judy and I decorate her shop for a fashion weekend event. Judy is living with her husband and their two children in the rooms behind the shop. The front is public, the back, private. The shop connects them to the outside world. Judy tells me that the shop is her creative project and that she has been decorating since her childhood.

We rearrange the front windows and put price tags on all items. Judy has many corporate film clients and I think she does not really need me to work for her rather we are engaged in symbolic exchange. 

 

07.06.2015 We work together again in her shop. I carry items from Judy's basement and put them outside on the street curb. She arrived from a camping trip in the Eifel, a hilly area not far from the city, so we unpack her car. I don't really need this stuff, she says, it looks since months the same in here. I need free space to start new things.

Judy is busy these days working on a birth scene at the hospital where I placed my ad. She says, the film crew took a close-up of my belly but it won't have a happy ending. In this scene, she says, a pregnant woman has been told that her baby has a chromosome abnormality. Judy is coaching the actress who plays the role of a pregnant woman. It's a melodrama, she says.

 

In their analysis of childbirth reality TV shows in the US and UK, Imogen Tyler and Lisa Baraitser argue that this new trend has potential to break old taboos of childbirth as passive and abject, but at the same time, as mass entertainment, childbirth could become just banal. To read about their concept of 'natal politics' that builds on Hannah Arendt's notion of 'natality' as new beginning and political act of freedom, see Imogen Tyler and Lisa Baraitser, 2013, 'Private View, Public Birth: Making Feminist Sense of the New Visual Culture of Childbirth', Studies in the Maternal, 5, 2: 1-27.

 

16.06.2015 I have not worked much at all for Judy but today the phone rings and someone else calls me. A woman named Liyla says she has only eight weeks left and lots to do before birth. It's her first pregnancy and she is planning a home birth.

 

17.06.2015 I meet Judy at University Hospital Department of Neurology. Today they filmed the birth scene and the production has almost ended. We pack her props into cardboard boxes but the film crew will need her belly again to reshot the scanning scene. Judy shows me the failed scan that is almost black and a silicon umbilical cord in the trash.

Only my baby is real, she says, everything else here is fake. We load her hi-tech equipment into a rental truck and it starts to rain. Judy says, the stage is pure illusion, but the scan cannot be an illusion, it has to look real. I will ask a sonographer who is a friend of mine to play the role of sonographer when we reshoot the scanning scene next week.

 

Sonographers can directly access the fetus and no longer rely solely on the woman as an intermediary. In the past, obstetricians used to ask pregnant patients questions concerning their last menstruation; today, the scanning machine can calculate gestational age. See: Ann Oakley, 1984, The Captured Womb: A History of the Medical Care of Pregnant Women, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 155, 182.

 

Judy says, the assistant director just scanned my belly because the cameraman wanted some motion on the screen. The assistant director put, while I was standing out of frame, the probe on my belly and then my baby appeared on the monitor. Judy was shocked by this sudden picture. Why? I ask her. In the medical context a pregnant woman has to lay down in a horizontal position and follow the standard procedure. First you get prepared, she says, then the picture appears.

 

In the 1960s the Queen Mother's Hospital in Glasgow was one of the world's most advanced obstetric ultrasound research centers headed by Ian Donald. Donald began to show patients seeking abortions the fetus on the monitor in an attempt to persuade them to continue with their pregnancies. He initiated the now common practice of giving women copies of their scan. Donald's medical practice shaped his political stance and he used scans to campaign against abortion. See: Malcolm Nicolson and John Fleming, 2013, Imaging and Imagining the Fetus: The Development of Obstetric Ultrasound, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 239-44.

 

LIYLA Hello there do you by any Chance have Spontaneous Time to pick up a homeopathy for me at Neusser Platz today at 5? :) im taking a Chance guessing Chances arent very high...xliyla

 

19.06.2015 I deliver homeopathic pills to Liyla in Köln-Sülz. Seeing the baby on the monitor changed my feeling into imagination, she says. But I don't want to imagine it. I like to feel the baby. I don't want the image to take over. Once was enough. I don't look at the monitor at all anymore, she says. Liyla wants to give me her scan but then she disappears.

 

By making pregnancy seem 'more real', scanning constructs the fetal subject as a controlling subject, as Susan Squier observes: 'it is control by the fetus, not only over the obstetrician and the gestating woman but over the world beyond her womb ... it is the fetus who has the best view of all'. See: Susan Squier, 1999, 'Negotiating Boundaries: From Assisted Reproduction to Assisted Replication' in Playing Dolly: Technocultural Formations, Fantasies, and Fictions of Assisted Reproduction (eds) E. Ann Kaplan and Susan Squier, New Jersey, Rutgers, 101-115, p. 106.

 

JUDY Hey Anna, if you have Time You could come tomorrow Morning at Nine or Nine thyrty Till Maybe One or two o clock. I have to go filming. Greetings*

 

23.06.2015 Today I am babysitting Judy's two children. We watch cartoons and play a dinosaur game. We then walk to a local Greek restaurant and buy a medium ham pizza for 6,90 Euros.

 

Bon voyage, Judy!

 

06.07.2015 Since days I am trying to return the borrowed scans to Judy but she has been too busy and yesterday she did in fact leave the country on vacation with her family. Judy is now on holiday from her scans. 

 

07.07.2015 At home I open my desk drawer and take out the black box in which are stored Judy's scans. I want to make sure her scans are still really there and have not yet disappeared so I unfold the scans.

04.08.2015 I photograph the edges of the scans and the shadows and zoom in and out and focus behind them. I scan the scans and print new scans. I rescan the scans. Now there are more than 12 scans.


Judy says, pregnancy is immediate closeness.

 

23.08.2015 Judy and her family are back from holiday. Today I pick up her children from childcare at 15:00 in Köln-Neustadt. I bring the one child to a birthday party in the park and the other to Judy's shop in Belgisches Viertel. Judy has a tan skin. She says, the baby is alive now. Judy thinks it will be her last pregnancy. Seeing the baby is not at all important for me now, she says, it is the sharing of bodies that is special. 

 

While scanning does not necessarily erase a pregnant subjectivity, as Meredith Nash argues, it does materialise a unique fetal subjectivity. Nash analyses scanning as self-disciplinary technique on the body that produces a specific kind of truth for pregnant women. See: Meredith Nash, 2007, 'From "Bump" to "Baby": Gazing at the Foetus in 4D', Philament SURVEILLANCE, 1-25, p. 15.

 

Judy shows me the baby's cribe. The film crew let her keep the cribe they used in the movie where her baby appears on the scanning monitor. She again says, my baby is already a TV-star before it is born. Judy then shows me a photo album and tells me a story about her work as a nurse in Ghana. It was the year 2002, Judy recalls. We drove to a voodoo village in the western part of Ghana. The villagers said 'this woman is a witch' but the woman was only old and sick. We cleaned her hut. Calling her a witch was a way to get rid of her, she says, a justification for the villagers.

In Ghana, she says, the nurses examine the pregnant bellies by hand. They know where to press and how to touch but in Germany the nurses have lost this ability. Scanning technology is fast and easy to learn. In Germany there is too much emphasis on safety, she says.

 

In the 1970s the popular theory of 'maternal-infant' bonding claimed that mothers who held their babies several hours directly after giving birth experienced positive long-term effects. In the 1980s obstetricians transferred this notion of 'bonding' to the mediated scanning session. Janelle Taylor notes that shifting the time of 'bonding' from after birth to before birth changes the nature of 'bonding' itself from physical to mechanical and from social interaction to spectatorship. See: Janelle Taylor, 1998, 'Image of Contradiction: Obstetrical Ultrasound in American Culture' in Reproducing Reproduction: Kinship, Power, and Technological Innovation, edited by Sarah Franklin and Helena Ragoné, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 15-45

 

02.09.2015 Judy gives birth at 06:29 after labouring for seven hours at the hospital where I placed my ad. Frey Ferdinand is 54 cm and 3670 grams. Judy says, I'm happy that I did it without anaesthesia because I didn't want to leave Frey with all the hard work that had to be done.

Does he resemble his scans? Judy asks me. Her husband did see a boy in the scans. The baby is outside her body but not yet completely here in our world, I think. It is still partly inside her. There is a kind of delay. A continuing effect of in-betweenness. But where is Judy? Judy is here and now.

Judy says, thank you for being a part of our birth story. So, she thinks I was part of her story, and I thought the opposite. And I thought I would have to work for her scans but I had her scans from the very first day. And now it makes no sense to have a scan after having all the scans, I think. I don't need an original, I tell her.

Scans and scanning techniques and technologies have been examined in feminist discourse as:

 

abstract individualism Rosalind Petchesky, 1987, 'Fetal Images: The Power of Visual Culture in the Politics of Reproduction', Feminist Studies, 13, 2, 263-292, p. 270

 

anti-abortion propaganda Karen Newman, 1996, Fetal Positions: Individualism, Science, Visibility, California: Standford University Press

 

anticipatory regime Eva Sänger, 2014, 'Obstetrical Care as a Matter of Time: Ultrasound Screening in Anticipatory Regimes of Pregnancy', Working Paper Series, Gender, Diversity and Migration, 2, 1-19

 

awakening David Hill, 2009, 'Ultrasound and the Face of the Other: A Levinasian Account of the Mother-Foetus Conflict', Kaleidoscope, 3, 1, 45-57, p. 50

 

beyond the clinic Janelle Taylor, 2008, The Public Life of the Fetal Sonogram: Technology, Consumption, and the Politics of Reproduction, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 121

 

biopower Lisa Mitchell, 2001, Baby's First Picture: Ultrasound and the Politics of Fetal Imaging, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, p. 18-19

 

biotourism Kim Sawchuk, 2000, 'Biotourism, Fantastic Voyage, and Sublime Inner Space' in Wild Science: Feminist Images of Medicine and Body, eds. Janine Marchessault and Kim Sawchuk, New York: Routledge, pp. 9-23

 

bodily permeability Sarah Franklin, 1993, 'Postmodern Procreation: Representing Reproductive Practice', Science as Culture 3, 4, 17, 522-561, p. 537

 

Christian realism ... embedded in the narratives of God's first Creation Donna Haraway, 1999, 'The Virtual Speculum in the New World' in Revisioning Women, Health, and Healing: Feminist, Cultural, and Technoscience Perspectives, eds. Adele Clarke and Virginia Olesen, Routledge: New York and London, 49-96, p. 54

 

coffin Christina Lammer, 'Digital Execution - The Creation of "Pure Skin" in the Processes of Visualization: the "Veil" of Power' in Digital Anatomy, ed. Christina Lammar, Vienna: Turia and Kant, 13-30, p. 29

 

commodity Janelle Taylor, 2008, The Public Life of the Fetal Sonogram: Technology, Consumption, and the Politics of Reproduction, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 117

 

competing discourses Dion Farquhar, 1996, The Other Machine: Discourse and Reproductive Technologies, New York: Routledge, p. 5

 

cultural imperative Marsha Saxton, 2013, 'Disability Rights and Selective Abortion' in The Disability Studies Reader, ed. Lennard Davis, New York: Routledge, 87-99, p. 91

 

cyborg foetus Lisa Mitchell and Eugenia Georges, 1997, 'Cross-Cultural Cyborgs: Greek and Canadian Women's Discourses on Fetal Ultrasound', Feminist Studies, 23, 2, 373-401, p. 373

 

disembodiment Ludmilla Jordanova, 1989, Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press

 

engendered Ann Rudinow Saetnan, 2000, 'Thirteen Women's Narratives of Pregnancy, Ultrasound, and Self' in Bodies of Technology: Women's Involvement with Reproductive Medicine, eds. Ann Rudinow Saetnan, Nelly Oudshoorn, Marta Kirejczyk, The Ohio State University, 331-354, p. 334

 

entertainment Janelle Taylor, 1998, 'Image of Contradiction: Obstetrical Ultrasound in American Culture', in Reproducing Reproduction: Kinship, Power, and Technological Innovation, eds. Sarah Franklin and Helena Ragoné, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 15-45

 

erasure of women's bodies Carol Stabile, 1992, 'Shooting the Mother: Fetal Photography and the Politics of Disappearance', Camera Obscura, January 28, 178-205, p. 180

 

eugenic subRosa, 2001, 'Stolen Rhetoric: The Appropriation of Choice by ART Industries' in Klone und Mutanten, eds. Birgit Richard and Sven Druehl, Kunstforum Band 157, Frankfurt

 

fetish Rosalind Petchesky, 1987, 'Fetal Images: The Power of Visual Culture in the Politics of Reproduction', Feminist Studies, 13, 2, 263-292, p. 270

 

fetal celebrity Lauren Berlant, 1997, The Queen of America Goes to Washington City: Essays on Sex and Citizenship, Durham: Duke University Press, p. 124

 

first picture in family album Lisa Mitchell, 2001, Baby's First Picture: Ultrasound and the Politics of Fetal Imaging, Toronto: University of Toronto Press

 

global fetus Laury Oaks, 1999, 'Irish Trans/national Politics and Locating Fetuses' in Fetal Subjects, Feminist Positions, eds. Lynn Morgan and Meredith Michaels, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 175-198, p. 175

 

"good" motherhood Adele Clarke, 2004, 'Maternity and Materiality: Becoming a Mother in Consumer Culture' in Consuming Motherhood, eds. Janelle Taylor, Linda Layne, Danielle Wozniak, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 55-71

 

hybrid practice Janelle Taylor, 2008, The Public Life of the Fetal Sonogram: Technology, Consumption, and the Politics of Reproduction, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 66

 

hyper-mobile Julie Roberts, 2012, The Visualised Foetus: A Cultural and Political Analysis of Ultrasound Imagery, UK: University of Warwick

 

icon of life Lynn Morgan, 2009, Icons of Life: A Cultural History of Human Embryos, California: University of California Press

 

immediate realness Liz Frazer, 2012, 'Problematizing Ultrasound: Cyborg Babies and Midwifery Care', Lecture at Ontario Student Midwife Conference

 

kin making Sallie Han, 2009, 'Seeing Like a Family: Fetal Ultrasound Images and Imaginings of Kin' in Imagining the Fetus: The Unborn in Myth, Religion, and Culture, eds. Vanessa Sasson and Jane Marie Law, New York: Oxford University Press, 275-290, p. 285

 

loss of horizon Barbara Duden, 1993, Disembodying Women: Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. 78

 

making pregnancy portable Laura Tropp, 2013, A Womb with a View: America's Growing Public Interest in Pregnancy, California: Praeger, p. 18

 

medical pornography Rosi Braidotti, 1994, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Comtemporary Feminist Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 68

 

modern sacrum Barbara Duden, 1993, Disembodying Women: Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. 109

 

naming Judith Butler, 1993, Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex', New York: Routledge, p. 8

 

narratives of risk and responsibility Lauren Fordyce, 2012, 'Imaging Maternal Responsibility: Prenatal Diagnosis and Ultrasound among Haitians in Florida' in Risk, Reproduction, and Narratives of Experience, eds. Lauren Fordyce and Amínata Maraesa, Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 191-209, p. 194

 

nemesis of the female foetus in India Anna Dani, 19 November 2004, 'Death in the Womb: Sex Selection Law Fails To Check Foeticide', Times Of India Internet Limited, Bennett, Coleman & Co. 

 

new body Anne Balsamo, 1996, Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women, London: Duke University Press, p. 90

 

objectification Monica Casper, 1995, 'Fetal Cyborgs and Technomoms on the Reproductive Frontier: Which Way to the Carnival?' in The Cyborg Handbook, ed. Chris H. Gray, London: Routledge, 1995, 193-196

 

oppressive Ann Rudinow Saetnan, 2000, 'Thirteen Women's Narratives of Pregnancy, Ultrasound, and Self' in Bodies of Technology: Women's Involvement with Reproductive Medicine, eds. Ann Rudinow Saetnan, Nelly Oudshoorn, Marta Kirejczyk, The Ohio State University, 331-354, p. 333

 

own kind of magic Lynn M. Morgan, 2000, 'Magic and a Little Bit of Science: Technoscience, Ethnoscience, and the Social Construction of the Fetus' in Bodies of Technology: Women's Involvement with Reproductive Medicine, eds. Ann Rudinow Saetnan, Nelly Oudshoorn, and Marta Kirejczyk, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 355-367, p. 357

 

personification process Rayna Rapp, 1997, 'Real-Time Fetus: The Role of the Sonogram in the Age of Monitored Reproduction' in Cyborgs & Citadels, eds. Gary Lee Downey and Joseph Dumit, Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 31-48, p. 40

 

phenomenon Karen Barad, 2001, 'Performing Culture / Performing Nature: Using the Piezoelectric Crystal of Ultrasound Technologies as a Transducer between Science Studies and Queer Theories' in Digital Anatomy, ed. Christina Lammar, Vienna: Turia and Kant, 98-114

 

pleasureable Barbara Katz Rothman, 1993, The Tentative Pregnancy: How Amniocentesis Changes the Experience of Motherhood, New York: Norton, p. 88

 

posthumanist Malcolm Nicholson and John E. E. Fleming, 2013, Imaging and Imagining the Fetus: The Development of Obstetric Ultrasound, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, p. 10

 

production Emily Martin, 1987, The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction, Boston: Beacon Press, p. 57

 

professionalisation of fertility Barbara Katz Rothman, 1993, The Tentative Pregnancy: How Amniocentesis Changes the Experience of Motherhood, New York: Norton

 

prosthetic device for men Margarete Sandelowski, 1994, 'Separate, but Less Unequal: Fetal Ultrasonography and the Transformation of Expectant Mother/Fatherhood', Gender and Society, 8, 2, 230-245

 

prosthetic device for making and remaking boundaries Karen Barad, 2007, Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning, Duke University Press, p. 201

 

pseudo-submarines Ann Oakley, 1984, The Captured Womb: A History of the Medical Care of Pregnant Women, Oxford: Blackwell, p.156

 

public fetus Barbara Duden, 1993, Disembodying Women: Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 50-55

 

rationalisation of reproduction Anne Balsamo, 1996, Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women, London: Duke University Press, p. 91

 

representing the irrepresentable Rosi Braidotti, 1994, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary Feminist Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 49

 

rite of passage Angela Laflen, 2014, Confronting Visuality in Multi-Ethnic Women's Writing, New York: Palgrave Macmillan  p. 108

 

ritual Lisa Mitchell and Eugenia Georges, 1998, 'Baby's First Picture: The Cyborg Fetus of Ultrasound Imaging' in Cyborg Babies: From Techno-Sex to Techno-Tots, eds. Robbie Davis-Floyd and Joseph Dumit, New York and London: Routledge, 105-124, p. 105

 

sacralisation Robin Mackenzie, 2007, 'Regulating Reprogenetics: Strategic Sacralisation and Semantic Massage', Health Care Analysis, 15, 4: 305-319

 

sadistic Rosi Braidotti, 1994, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary Feminist Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 68

 

scopic economy Lorna Weir, 1998, 'Pregnancy Ultrasound in Maternal Discourse' in Vital Signs: Feminist Reconfigurations of the Bio/logical Body, eds. Margrit Shildrick and Janet Price, Edinburgh University Press: 78-101, p. 85

 

seeing with sound Ann Oakley, 1984, The Captured Womb: A History of the Medical Care of Pregnant Women, Oxford: Blackwell, p.156

 

schizo-aisthesis Barbara Duden, 2001, 'Images and Ways of Knowing - The History of Pregnancy as an Example' in The Imagination of the Body and the History of Bodily Experience, ed. Kuriyama Shigehisa, 119-136, Kyoto: International Research Symposium Proceedings, Centre for Japanese Studies, p. 124

 

semiotic object Julie Roberts, 2012, The Visualised Foetus: A Cultural and Political Analysis of Ultrasound Imagery, UK: University of Warwick, p. 9

 

spectator sport Margarete Sandelowski and Beth Perry Black, 1994, 'The Epistemology of Expectant Parenthood', Western Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 6, 601-622

 

surveillance Meredith Nach, 2007, 'From "Bump" to "Baby": Gazing at the Foetus in 4D', Philament SURVEILLANCE, 1-25

 

technological quickening Barbara Duden, 1993, Disembodying Women: Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. 95

 

tentative Barbara Katz Rothman, 1993, The Tentative Pregnancy: How Amniocentesis Changes the Experience of Motherhood, New York: Norton

 

time displacement Irma van der Ploeg, 2002, Prosthetic Bodies: The Construction of the Fetus and the Couple as Patients in Reproductive Technologies, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 65

 

transparency José van Dijck, 2005, The Transparent Body: A Cultural Analysis of Medical Imaging, University of Washington Press

 

ultragasms Tema Milstein and Charlotte Kroløkke, 2012, 'Transcorporeal Tourism: Whales, Fetuses, and the Rupturing and Reinscribing of Cultural Constraints', Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture, 6, 1, 82-100, p. 83

 

uniquely powerful illusion Malcolm Nicholson and John E. E. Fleming, 2013, Imaging and Imagining the Fetus: The Development of Obstetric Ultrasound, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, p. 267

 

universalizing technology Lisa Mitchell and Eugenia Georges, 1997, 'Cross-Cultural Cyborgs: Greek and Canadian Women's Discourses on Fetal Ultrasound', Feminist Studies, 23, 2, 373-401, p. 396

 

virtual forceps Steven Mentor, 1998, 'Witches, Nurses, Midwives, and Cyborgs: IVF, ART, and Complex Agency' in Cyborg Babies: From Techno-Sex to Techno-Tots, eds. Robbie Davis-Floyd and Joseph Dumit, New York and London: Routledge, 67-89, p. 81

 

war against wombs Gena Corea, 1985, The Mother Machine: Reproductive Technologies from Artificial Insemination to Artificial Wombs, New York: Harper & Row, see chapter 15

 

"window" onto the womb Lynn Morgan, 2000, 'Magic and a Little Bit of Science: Technoscience, Ethnoscience, and the Social Construction of the Fetus' in Bodies of Technology: Women's Involvement with Reproductive Medicine, eds. Ann Rudinow Saetnan, Nelly Oudshoorn, Marta Kirejczyk, Ohio State University, 355-367, p. 363

 

the sonographer as:

 

gatekeeper Lisa Mitchell and Eugenia Georges, 1997, 'Cross-Cultural Cyborgs: Greek and Canadian Women's Discourses on Fetal Ultrasound', Feminist Studies, 23, 2, 373-401, p. 376

 

interpreter Jan Draper, 2002, '"It was a Real Good Show": The Ultrasound Scan, Fathers and the Power of Visual Knowledge', Sociology of Health & Illness, 24, 6, 771-795

 

photographer Julie Palmer, 2009, 'The Placental Body in 4D: Everyday Practices of Non-Diagnostic Sonography', Feminist Review 93, 64-80

 

stage director Charlotte Kroløkke, 2011, 'Biotourist Performances: Doing Parenting during the Ultrasound', Text and Performance Quarterly, 31,1, 15-36

 

tour guide Charlotte Kroløkke, 2010, 'On a Trip to the Womb: Biotourist Metaphors in Fetal Ultrasound Imaging', Women's Studies in Communication, 33, 138-153